* Purpose: to measure the compliance (movement) of the ear drum. A small probe seals the entry of the ear canal; a change in air pressure is applied to the ‘sealed cavity’ resulting in movement of the ear drum. A different stimulus is used to counter the characteristic middle ear behaviour identified in infants.
* Results: reported as a ‘type’ or ‘curve’ based on middle ear characteristics measured during the test. A Type ‘A’ curve is consistent with normal middle ear function.
*Indications: ear infection, middle ear effusion, Otosclerosis, perforated tympanic membrane, Eustachian tube dysfunction, wax impaction, ear canal occlusion.
* Purpose: to prevent water from entering the outer ear and middle ear cavity during showering, bathing or swimming.
* Indications: ear drum perforation, mastoid cavities, exostoses, Otitis Externa.
* Indications: difficulty equalising the middle ear during diving or flying, recurrent ear infection, Autophony (resonating of own voice), continual need to perform Valsalva, Tinnitus (head noises).
* Purpose: An objective test of the Stapedius and Tensor Tympani reflex. By eliciting loud tones, we can activate the acoustic reflex pathway and measure tympanic membrane movement caused by the Stapedius’ muscle contraction to loud sounds. Movement of the ear drum indicates the presence of the reflex.
* Indications: suspected brainstem pathology, facial acoustic nerve abnormalities.
* Contraindications: middle ear pathology, effusion or Eustachian tube dysfunction, ear canal occlusion.
* Purpose: An assessment to evaluate subjective hearing levels of simple tones and sounds. This test can be performed as a screening (air conduction with masking only) or as a complete test (air & bone conduction with masking).
* Indications: Any complaint relating to the ear.
* Purpose: Evaluates a patient’s ability to understand and interpret complex sounds.
* Indications: Pure Tone Audiometry result indicates a hearing loss, suspected auditory nerve abnormality/ retrocochlear pathology.
* Purpose: To identify the effectiveness of current hearing aid or implant fitting. Speech tests are performed with amplification switched ‘ON’.
* Indications: Poor performance with amplification, reported difficulties over and above what would be expected considering amplification and degree of hearing loss, recent decline in aided performance.
* Purpose: A collection of test procedures (Otoscopy, Tympanometry, Acoustic Reflexes, Pure tone Audiometry, Speech Testing) to evaluate the overall ear health and hearing ability of the patient.
*Indications: patient reports difficulty hearing, ear-related symptoms such as tinnitus, loudness discomfort, ear health problems such as Otitis Externa/Media, Meniere’s disease and other diseases of the hearing and balance organs, brainstem pathologies.
* Purpose: A Full Audiological Assessment and Comprehensive Aided Speech Testing to determine a patient’s candidacy for amplification.
* Indications: Hearing loss, poor performance with current amplification.
* Purpose: To subjectively evaluate hearing levels and sound awareness in infants using common stimulus such as rattles, speech sounds and toys. This test is performed in a free field, only the best ear will respond.
* Indications: suspected hearing loss, children who cannot sit upright nor support their own head.
* Purpose: To subjectively evaluate hearing levels and sound awareness in young children using puppets, toys, tones, sounds and voice. This test is performed in a free field, only the best ear will respond.
* Indications: suspected hearing loss, this test is for children who can sit upright, unassisted.
* Purpose: To subjectively evaluate hearing levels in children through game play. This test is desirable because information on individual ears can be obtained.
* Indications: suspected hearing loss, children should be able to concentrate for 15 to 30 minutes for good results
* Purpose: To evaluate a child’s ability to understand speech, complements and confirms results obtained during Play Audiometry.
* Indications: suspected hearing loss, hearing loss identified in Play Audiometry, children should be able to concentrate for 15 to 30 minutes.
* Purpose: To evaluate the auditory nerve objectively using clicks or tone bursts and provides a more cost-effective alternative to MRI (though is less sensitive to small tumours). Tone bursts will allow greater threshold estimation than clicks.
* Indications: suspected Auditory Neuropathy, suspected Acoustic Neuroma (>1cm diameter), hearing loss in the disabled population and children.
* Purpose: To objectively examine cochlear mechanics and more specifically, to evaluate outer hair cell function.
* Indications: commonly used as a hearing screening for infants, suspected auditory neuropathy or hearing loss.
* Purpose: To objectively estimate behavioural thresholds using high repetition rate stimuli and a sophisticated mathematical algorithm for detection and analysis. More specific than ABR.
* Indications: Failed ABR and considering amplification (hearing aid or cochlear implant).
• BALANCE ASSESSMENT
* Purpose: Using a variety of visual targets, this collection of tests (gaze, saccades, pursuit/ tracking, optokinetic) challenges the oculomotor system and provides information about the integrity of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex. Can detect neurological abnormalities in some cases, but is generally used in conjunction with the Caloric Test to evaluate the balance system on the whole.
* Indications: acute and chronicdizziness or imbalance, balance disorders, central vestibular or neurological disorders.
* Purpose: To determine the responsiveness of the vestibular system, and how symmetrical the responses are between the left and right side. More specifically this test provides information about the horizontal semicircular canals’ reaction to cool and warm stimuli. The test generates a percentage value, which provides information about the ‘balance’ of the vestibular system.
* Indications: balance disorders or complaints of dizziness/ vertigo/ imbalance.
* Purpose: To subjectively examine and record positional test responses using video recordings rather than Frenzel lenses.
* Indications: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV), Cervical Vertigo, Gaze Evoked Nystagmus. For patients with unique or notable positional nystagmus requiring video confirmation.
* Purpose: To measure nystagmus during chair rotation and determine the state of the horizontal semicircular canal vestibulo-ocular reflex. To verify the result found during caloric test.
* Indications: bilateral hypofunction, to monitor ototoxicity, can be used in place of the caloric test for malformed or obstructed ears, inconclusive or inconsistent caloric test.
* Purpose: To determine if an individual can perceive verticality using neurological inputs from the visual, vestibular and somatosensory systems. Can be abnormal if there is damage to the Otolithic organs.
* Indications: vestibular neuritis, acute vestibular injury, acute Meniere’s disease.
* Purpose: A simple procedure using a classic eye chart, measuring visual acuity with the head in motion (the patient is asked to move their head from side to side and read the letters in the eye chart).
* Indications: bilateral vestibular loss.
* Purpose: a method of quantifying balance ability with test scenarios designed to challenge the visual, vestibular and somatosensory systems separately and all at once.
* Indications: monitoring disability, monitoring rehabilitation, medico-legal cases.
* Purpose: The ideal combination of vestibular tests to suit most patients. Includes Oculography and the Caloric Test.
* Indications:dizziness or imbalance, peripheral vestibular disorders and disease.
* Purpose: To determine if the Saccule, Inferior Vestibular Nerve and central pathways are intact and working normally, by stimulating the Saccule with loud, click stimuli and measuring the neuromuscular response from the Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle of the neck.
* Indications:Superior Canal Dehiscence, Meniere’s, Vestibular Neuritis
* Contraindications: hyper-recruitment, loudness sensitivity, neck or shoulder injury.
* Purpose: examines the Tullio Phenomenon (sound induced dizziness) to elicit eye movements using loud, impulse tones.
* Indications: most commonly found in Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome.
*Purpose: An electrically evoked response to sound which demonstrates the action and summation potential of the cochlea to auditory stimulation.
* Indications:Meniere’s disease.
* Purpose: To provide repetitive, controlled and individualised exercises. To allow patients to learn new limits after vestibular loss, re-establish neural connections and to develop new skills using other senses such as vision and proprioception. * Indications: BPPV, unilateral or bilateral vestibular loss, fluctuating vestibular problems such as Meniere’s syndrome.
* Purpose: To check for high frequency (speed), all 6 semicircular canal, VOR GAIN, Covert and Overt saccades..
* Indications: vertigo, dizziness, Imbalance, Visual Disturbance on head movement, high frequency balance loss.